EV charging connectors

Different types of EV charging connectors in India

Electric vehicles are recharged by electricity. The electric battery can be charged, by connecting to an external plug. EV Charging Connectors are the end-point connectors that are fixed on the charging cable and get attached to the electric vehicle and facilitate charging.

Indian Electric Cars & the type of Connectors:

Electric carAC ConnectorDC Connector
Audi e-tron SUV and SportbackType 2CCS
Hyundai Kona ElectricType 2CCS
Jaguar I-PaceType 2CCS
Lexus NZType 2CHAdeMO 
Mahindra e2oIEC60309GB/T
Mahindra eVerito Type 2GB/T
Mercedes-Benz EQCType 2CCS
MINI Cooper SEType 2CCS
Nissan LEAFType 2CHAdeMO 
Porsche TaycanType 2CCS
Tata Nexon EVType 2CCS
Tata Tigor EV (Old)IEC60309GB/T
Tata Tigor EV (New)Type 2GB/T
Tata Tigor EV ZiptronType 2CCS

EV connectors at the vehicle side

AC EV Connectors are the connectors that deliver AC power from a charging station to the onboard charger of an electric car. The onboard charger converts AC to DC and then feeds it to the electric vehicle‘s battery pack. The maximum power of domestic AC supply is almost 7kW, and in the event of fast charging, the maximum power can be nearly 22kW.

Plugging in an electric car overnight and topping up during the day is similar to charging a smartphone. EV connectors at the vehicle side will directly connect to the vehicle. There are mainly two types of connectors, AC (slow charging) and DC (fast charging) type. The charging station sends electrical energy to the battery pack through a charging port

AC or slow charging connectors

They are usually slow charging. A regular three-pin outlet with an EVSE cable or a wall-mounted home charging point can be used to charge an electric automobile at home. Drivers of electric cars pick a home charging station to take advantage of faster charging and built-in safety features.

There are mainly two types of AC connectors. They are :

  1. IEC60309
  2. Type 2 AC connector

1. IEC60309

Charging with 1 Phase, 15 A Outlet with connector IEC 60309 and related safety interlocks. Depending on the current supplied and the number of phases allowed, a variety of plugs and sockets of various sizes and pin counts are available. The fittings are popular in open-air settings since they are weatherproof to IP44. They’re also often utilised in situations when a high current rating or three-phase capabilities were not required.

Image credits : Wikipedia

The voltage range and frequency utilised are  color-coded on the cable connectors and sockets, for 50–60 Hz AC power, common colours are yellow for 100–130 volts, blue for 200–250 volts, and red for 380–480 volts. The blue fittings are frequently used to provide weather-resistant external sockets for outdoor equipment.

Reasons why EV charger connectors are not designed like normal three-plugs

  • Three-pins are unable to withstand power more than 10Wh
  • Affected by weather
  • Three-pins does not provide two-way communication

2.Type 2 AC connector

The IEC 62196 Type 2 connector (Mennekes) is mostly used in Europe for charging electric vehicles. It is also recommended at countries like New Zealand. The circular connector has a flattened top edge and was designed to charge battery electric vehicles at 3–50 kilowatts. A single-phase or three-phase alternating current (AC) is used to generate electricity (DC).

The Type 2 AC connector consists of seven pins out of which:

  • One pin is earth pin,
  • One neutral pin,
  • three-line phase pin
  • Two signalling pins.

However, if the EV Charger is only single phase like 7.4 KW Single Phase EV Charger then, in that case out of the three plugs for phase, only one has conductor, rest are blind. Consequently, Type-2 AC Chargers look exactly similar from 7.4 KW to 22 KW AC, the only difference is in phase conductors. While in 7.4 KW single phase, there is only one-conductor, the three phase (22 KW) has 3 conductors.

DC or fast charging connectors

The DC-EV Connectors provide direct DC power to the EV’s battery pack. A Rapid-DC charging system can charge at 50kW, whereas an Ultra-Rapid charging system can charge at 100kW to 150kW. Rapid chargers do not charge at their full power rating all of the time to safeguard the battery. DC chargers perform the conversion from AC power to DC power at the charging station itself.

There are mainly three types of DC charging connectors:

  1. GB/T Connector
  2. CHAdeMO connector
  3. CCS1 and CCS2 connector

1. GB/T Connector

GB/T connectors are mainly used in China. The GB/T standard allows for charging power of up to 250 kW, allowing electric vehicles to charge even faster. The vehicle connector can also be locked in its bracket to prevent it against robbery. The power source used by GB/T connectors are DC power. CAN BUS signalling is used by the Chinese GBT connection. It does not use control protocols based on PLCs.

2.CHAdeMO connector

Image credits : Wikipedia

In 2010, the Japanese developed the CHAdeMO EV Connector Specification, a DC-based EV Connector Specification. The CHAdeMO EV Connector Specifications are used to create DC-based EV Connectors that offer up to 62.5 kW by 500 V with 125 Amperes, direct current for fast charging of battery electric vehicles.

For the Control Pin(CP), the CAN Protocol is utilised to make communication between the electric car and the charging system easier. The new CHAdeMO EV Connector Specification 2.0 provides for up to 400kW of charging power. Most electric vehicles are compatible with the CHAdeMO connector.

2.CCS1 and CCS2 connector

Combined Charging System (CCS) charging sockets use shared communications pins to combine AC and DC inlets. As a result, the CCS charging socket occupies less space than CHAdeMO and other AC plugs. Because CCS1 and CCS2 share the same DC pin architecture and communications protocols, manufacturers can easily switch the AC plug portion for Type 1 in the US and Japan for Type 2 in other markets.

It communicates between an electric car and the charging system via a PLC (Power Line Communication). North America, South Korea, and a few other countries primarily use CCS 1. European countries are the primary users of CCS 2.

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